Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Partition of India - A horror that Indians have forgotten.

Head of the Commission that Partitioned India: Cyril John Rad Cliffe a British Attorney.

What is his achievement:? 
Without knowing anything about India he partitioned the country in just 5 weeks . 
No this is not a Typo error. (July 8 1947 to August 17)

He reached India on July 8 1947 without knowing what he was being called for. He was not aware of the political situation or the freedom struggle that was going on in India. He was not even aware of how many princely states where there in India.

He was born in wales and educated in Oxford and was working as an Advocate and a director general of Information ministry of the British government.

The newly appointed viceroy Mount baton decided to create Pakistan by partitioning India. A resolution to this effect was passed on June 3rd 1947. There was widespread agitation in Punjab and Bengal. These two states where the main states that where to be partitioned.

Mount Baton was aware that there will be widespread riots if the nation was partitioned under such tense situation. But his main intention was to make sure Pakistan was created before the British left India. 

A commission comprising of 4 judges was formed to go ahead with the partition. 
2 represented Congress and 2 from Muslim League. 

The problem that laid before the comission was


  • Who will get Lahore?
  • Who will get Calcutta?
  • How to Split Rivers and Mountains?


The previous Viceroy Earl Wavell had proposed a plan to partition the nation but it had a lot of complications So 2 commissions where set up 1. Bengal comission 2.Punjab Comission 

Rad Cliffe was appointed as the Head for both these comissions at a monthly salary of Rs 40,000(Yes he was paid this in 1947 not in 2010).

He was given a measly 5 weeks to partition India. He has to come up with the demarkation borders within the period of time. To come up with the border one has to have access to the Maps, Population details, Irrigation channel details and other demographics info. Keeping this in mind he asked for more time but he was promplty refused and was assured that all the help will be provided to him to get things done.

But what was he provided with?
A Map prepared in 1931
Census details from 1941

All the above info where outdated. Even the authorities told him that the info was inaccurate and incomplete. So he had a mamoth task in hand with no data to depend upon.

Kuldeep nayyar about Rad Cliffe "When the initial plan to partition India was planned Rad cliffe was in Shimla.He wanted to start work in July rather than the hot month of June. But Mount baton was stern and told Rad Cliffe to not waste even a single day. This put a lot of sress on Rad Cliffe"

Not only this from day one Rad cliffe had a lot of difference in opinion with the comission members. 

A muslim league member told Rad cliffe that he used to go to Darjeeling every year on vacation. If Darjeeling is given to India he wont be able to visit it in the future . So he asked Darjeeling be given to Pakistan. An entire nation was to be partitioned and these where the kind of proposals put in front of Rad Cliffe. People who never knew the consequences of partition where part of the comittee which was about to decide the fate of millions of people.

At the end it was decided that Baluchistan and Sindh will be given to Pakistan. Bengal will be split in to two and West bengal will be part of India and east bengal will be part of Pakistan. West Punjab will be given to Pakistan and East punjab will be part of India.

They wanted to give a big city to each nation so Lahore went to Pakistan and Calcutta formed a part of India.

After a lot of oppositions and controversies Rad clife came up with the Border segregation details. He was not sure what he done was right. So he approached Mount Baton for an opinion on this. And mount baton suggested let us leave it to the Indian Hindus and Muslims to Decide on this. Though Rad cliffe had completed his task on august 13 Mount Baton asked him not to release the modified maps until Independence is announced.

Independence was celebrated in both the nations without knowing which part will be part of which nation. People celebrated Independece day without knowing which nation they were living in.

The modified map was shared to the comittee members on august 16th at 5PM. It was released to the people the next day. Along with it an order was passed to people to vacate the villages and districts.

The solution was not welcomed by both the ends. But Mount Baton turned a deaf year to all this. He expected riots and to contain that he stationed troops in Lahore and Calcutta. But that troop was not able to contain the riots that ravaged both the nations in upcoming days.

12.5 million were made to leave their respective places and leave to unknown territory. This huge number was a first in the entire human history. People were looted, left without food, women were raped. Cholera was spreading without any control. In 72 hours 4000 people were killed.

But in all this commotion the rich and the Industrialists were not affected. Infact they made good use of the situation. The affected were the layman. Industrialists who were in Pakistan transferred all their investments to banks in Delhi. 250 Crore was the amount of money transferred during the partition.

The most affected in the partition where the Sikhs living in Punjab which was now part of Pakistan. They were forced to abandon their fields, businesses, traditional family homes and sent out as refugees. A statistic states that around 50000 women were raped. A majority of these women became pregnant and a mass abortion was conducted in the next few months. Indian government stated 33000 women were affected and Pakistan quoted that 51000 women were affected.

There were instances in which women were branded in their breasts with hot iron to identify them as Muslims or Hindus.

It was estimated that around 2 lakh people died in the dark days of Indian History. No one was there to bury the dead. Dogs ate the dead. 7 crore 25 lakh Muslims left to Pakistan and 7 crore 25 lakh Hindus and Sikhs came to India. 




Where was Rad cliffe when all this was happening?

He was sent back to England on august 17 stating that he was not able to cope up with the Indian climate and temperature. But the actual reason was Mount Baton feared people who were affected because of the partion will murder Rad cliffe.

Rad cliffe never returned to India after this. He set all the notes and maps used by him on fire.

The partition was not favourable to the Indians nor the Pakistanis. It was favourable for the British. They wanted India and Pakistan to be enemies for ever. Mount Baton succeeded in this master plan of the British empire.

Rad cliffe had suggested that India and Pakistan sould finalize the river water sharing amongst themself. 

Inspite of being the reason for the death of Millions of Indians the same Mount Baton was re appointed as Viceroy of India. No where in the world would such a stupidity might have been permitted.

This partition laid the foundation for the later Indo-Pak war, Kashmir issue and all the other issue that we are part of now.

Source:-

India's partitionprocess, strategy and mobilization

The Great Partition The Making of India and Pakistan


This post is based on an essay written in Tamil by author S.Ramakrishnan in his book

Wednesday, May 28, 2014 by Anandarajeshwaran.J · 0

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Tiger of the snows: The Autobiography of Tenzing of Everest


Lets talk about Tenzing Norgay

Let me give you a short background on the expedition to Mt.everest

1924 June 8th George Mallory from the British mountaineering foundation started their expedition to scale Mt.Everest but where declared dead a few weeks later. His body was found 75 years later. The position of his body and a few key contents missing(photograph of his wife) from his handbag suggests that he might have reached the summit long before Tenzing and Edmund hilary reached the summit. More about this over here.

Everybody says Tenzing and Edumund reached Mt.Everest first but that doesn't make any sense. This peak has been there even before humans existed on Earth. We can agree that in recorded human history Tenzing and Norgay where the first. I am sure a lot of people before them would have reached the summit. Everest is considered to be the house of Lord Shiva. So Hindu yogis would have definitely been there before.

Let me keep all the controversies aside and continue with what I wanted to write.

Edmund the Newzealander and Tenzing Norgay the Nepali Sherpa from Darjeeling reached the summit of Mt.Everest on 1953 May 29.

Sherpa means people who came from East.

It costs around $75,000 [Us dollars](40 lakhs INR) to reach the summit. It doesn't stop there you need to get the permission from the Nepal government also. As of now there are 2000 people in the waiting list. I read that nowadays there are Traffic jam in Mt.Everest. Not able to believe, let me explain. There is only one rope laid by the Chinese available to scale the Peak . People use that as a guide wire to ascend and descend the Peak. If the weather changes while you climb up or down you are forced to stay put in the temporary tents. This increases the time you spend on this harsh land and increases the timeline of others waiting to use the line. There are a few places where ladders have been laid by the people who scaled the peak earlier.

Not only Mt.Everest has Traffic Jam it has been littered with garbage from all the expeditions. If you are planning to climb Mt.Everest learn to collect garbage along with your training plan.

There are no snaps that show's Edmund at the summit. The photographs only have Tenzing posing in the summit.

When the news spread that they both have scaled the peak reporters asked Tenzing, who really reached the peak first? Tenzing replied that it is a group effort and he is not going to tell anyone who really reached first. 

But Edmund tells a different story. He said that since Tenzing didn't knew how to snap a photograph he is not seen in any of the snaps from the summit.

Mountaineering not only requires a tough body also a strong mental fitness. He says that once you reach those heights the body refuses to cooperate with you. Apart from this the loneliness over there affects you to the core. Tenzing says that at lot of time he feels like a lunatic while alone on the top. But he says that he believes he is not alone and Buddha is with him .

Loneliness is very cruel.
I would like to narrate an process shared by Sadhguru Jaggi vasudev from Isha Foundation
"If someone wants to really know who he is he should lock himself in a brightly lit room where no external noise can enter. He should position himself towards a white wall and fix his stare on it. He should not look away or sleep or have any contact with the external world. If meticulously followed most probably at the end of 3 days he will either become an enlightened one or might become a lunatic" 

Disclaimer: Please do not try the above process without proper guidance. 

These are one of the arguments that NASA is yet to answer in the controversy surrounding the so called landing of man on the moon. How where the astronauts able to cope up with the stress and loneliness of the vast expanse of the Universe?

Let's come back to where we started. Tenzing who reached the summit shouted with joy for a while. He was there for 15 minutes before he planned for the descent. When he was standing alone on top of the world he was overwhelmed by the size of the world and its beauty he started crying uncontrollably.

As a Buddhist he wanted to give offerings to god before descending . He buried a pen given by his daughter and some sweets.

Tenzing breathed his last on 1986 in Darjeeling.

Himalayas is  my mother. The tall peaks are her breasts. I have drunk milk from those breasts. I am entitled to her at all times. Peaks cannot be won by humans they are Natures puzzles. Living along with them is the only possibility that man has.
                                                                   -Tenzing Norgay

Bibliography
Tiger of the Snows the autobiography of Tenzing of Everest-tenzing norgay
Fortress Monasteries of the Himalayas Tibet, Ladakh, nepal and Bhutan Peter Harrisson

This post is based on an essay written in Tamil by author S.Ramakrishnan in his book

Wednesday, April 23, 2014 by Anandarajeshwaran.J · 0

Thursday, December 26, 2013

The juice of Bhagavad Gita


Fear not what is not real, never was and never will be.  What is real, always was and cannot be destroyed."

The Bhagavad Gita

கீதா சாரம்

எது நடந்ததோ, அது நன்றாகவே நடந்தது

எது நடக்கிறதோ, அது நன்றாகவே நடக்கிறது.

எது நடக்க இருக்கிறதோ, அதுவும் நன்றாகவே நடக்கும்.

உன்னுடையதை எதை இழந்தாய். எதற்காக நீ அழுகிறாய்?

எதை நீ கொண்டு வந்தாய் அதை நீ இழப்பதற்கு?

எதை நீ படைத்திருந்தாய், அது வீணாவதற்கு?

எதை நீ எடுத்துக் கொண்டாயோ , அது இங்கு இருந்தே எடுக்கப்பட்டது.

எதை கொடுத்தாயோ, அது இங்கேயே கொடுக்கபட்டது.

எது இன்று உன்னுடையதோ அது நாளை மற்றொருவருடையதாகிறது.

மற்றொருநாள் அது வேறு ஒருவருடையதாகிறது

இதுவே உலக நியதியாகும்

எனது படைப்பின் சாராம்சம் ஆகும்

English Translation
--------------------
what happened was always for your good
what happens is happening for your good
what is about to happen is for your good
why are you crying? what have you lost?
what did you bring to this world to lose it?
what did you create to see it destroy?
what ever you own was all taken from here
what ever you gave was given here itself
what is yours today will be some one else's tomorrow
the day afterr it is some one else's
this is the way the world operates
and the summary of my creation

Thursday, December 26, 2013 by Anandarajeshwaran.J · 0

Wednesday, July 31, 2013

Who are you to do good to the World?

A zealous disciple expressed a desire to teach others the truth and asked the Master what he thought about this.

The Master said, "Wait."

Each year the disciple would return with the same request and each time the Master would give him the same reply, "Wait."

One day he said to Master, "When will I be ready to teach?"

Said the Master, "When your excessive eagerness to teach has left you."


People speak of doing good to the world. Is the world such a small thing? 
And who are you to do good to the world?
First realize God, see him by means of spiritual discipline.
If he imparts power, then you can do good to others, otherwise not.

Shri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.


Wednesday, July 31, 2013 by Anandarajeshwaran.J · 0

Friday, February 22, 2013

Archimedes and the Tamil King Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan



I am sure everyone has read the life history of Archimedes and his famous Eureka moment. If you have forgotten what you read in your school you can refresh your memory here.

One of my mentors used to tell me that a thought that occurs in a individual appears for 7 other individuals living at the same time. So be careful if you get an idea for an wonderful app get it done immediately or else others would have already added it to the appstore.

 I am not here to justify or disagree with this statement but would like to describe a incident on same lines.
We know Archimedes used water to identify the difference in density of a pure gold crown and a crown mixed with silver.
Now let's come to India. Indians are very deeply rooted with tradition and heritage. There is a practice in the Hindu temples. If your child is not well you can pray to god that if your kid gets will you will offer fruits to the temple equivalent to the child's weight. Offerings range from fruits, rice etc., This practice is called as Thulabaram[means Balance]

This practice is still being followed in all the temples in India. Modern day politicians are given currencies equivalent to their weight by their party members[out of compulsion :-)]

There was this Tamil king who went by the name Sadayavarman Sundara Pandyan. He was an austere devotee of Srirangam Sreenranganathar. He wanted to do make a very big offering to the temple.

He wanted to donated Gold, precious stones and pearls equivalent to the combined weight of his chief elephant with him seated on the elephant. The first problem that came up was there was no way to build such a big balance to weigh the elephant.

After some brainstorming they came up with an idea. They built two big boats capable of carrying a elephant identical in size and weight. The king got on to his elephant and the elephant got into the Boat which was in river.
The boat lowered in to the water due to the weight of the elephant and remained floating. The other boat was filled with gold and diamonds until it also lowered in to the water to the same level as that of the other boat with the elephant.
Technically they have calculated the weight of the unknown mass in an efficient manner.

The undelying concept is the same Archimedes used it to find the amount of silver mixed in the Golden crown but the King used it to calculate the equivalent weight of his elephant in precious stones.

So what my mentor told is indeed true. But I am not sure about the time period during which these two great people lived[got confused about the BC and CE timelines in wikipedia].









Friday, February 22, 2013 by Anandarajeshwaran.J · 0

Tuesday, January 1, 2013

Stop Researching ... Start Executing.... - 7 steps to perfectionism

At least a few among us have a very special project or task in mind which we think of doing it in the future. But since it is so dear to us we always aim for getting it done in a perfect way.

Read more »

Tuesday, January 1, 2013 by Anandarajeshwaran.J · 0

Saturday, December 15, 2012

Should I buy an e-reader (aka Kindle Paper white)?


The other day I was speaking with a colleague and happened to mention that I have a Kindle e-reader(Kindle Keyboard) at home. He had never heard about this device before. Then I explained him what it is. He googled for it and learnt what the device is for and got the price of the device.

He was surprised to see that I have purchased a dedicated ebook reader at 179$[Kindle paper white 3G 179$] when I can get a full blown tablet [Kindle fire HD $199] for about the same price.

So I explained him how a Kindle e-reader beats tablets. Thought like sharing it with others so it might help someone decide should he buy a e-reader or a tablet.

Where does an e-reader score over a tablet?

First thing you should understand is E-readers and Tablets are not same, they serve entirely different purposes. A tablet can do "n" number of things but a E-reader does only one thing and it does that "100" times better than a tablet.

What does it do and how does it do it better than a tablet?

You can read a book on an E-Reader. Yes for that price it does only this[you have cheaper versions starting from 69$ also].

But it does that one thing perfectly

  • It exactly replicates the feel of a physical book. You never feel like you are holding a gadget.
  • You can read for hours together without getting your eyes strained or your batteries running out. E-ink technology is so light on your eyes. It runs for so long on a single charge I usually forget what was the last time I charged my kindle.
  • Its inbuilt dictionary is a perfect companion for an avid book reader. No need to carry a bulky dictionary along especially while reading classics available at Project Gutenberg

These are the killer reasons which made me switch from physical books to a E-reader and not selecting a Tablet. There are other benefits but they are not the actual selling points for a E-reader. They are like nice to have but not mandatory.

Who is it for?

  • It is for the avid book reader who reads a lot [minimum one book a month]. 
  • It is a very good tool to introduce children (8+ years) to the habit of reading. It does not distract you like a tablet. Disconnect the WiFi and you are on your way to distraction free wonderland.

Who is it not for?

It is not for the person who wants to browse the web on a portable device. They fit the category of Tablets.

Cons of an E-reader?

  • You should be reading content formatted specifically for your device[there are tons of content available for Kindle] or you will end up with frustration. Novels and Newspapers fit best for this category. Magazines don't fit or look nice on an E-reader. There are tools to convert your media to fit your device.

Recommended E-reader?

Though I have used the generic term E-reader I am an Amazon fan boy. So my recommendation is for KIndle

for Adults Kindle paperwhite 119$  - I am not a great fan of 3G
for Children Kindle - without touch

Hope I helped you in making a informed decision this gifting season.


Saturday, December 15, 2012 by Anandarajeshwaran.J · 0

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